Asset & Creditor Protection for Your Self Directed IRA
November 1st, 2011
RETIREMENT accounts have become many Americans most valuable assets. That means it is vital that you have the ability to protect them from creditors, such as people who have won lawsuits against you.
In general, the asset/creditor protection strategies available to you depend on the type of retirement account you have (i.e. Traditional, IRA, Roth IRA, or 401(k) qualified plan, etc), your state residency, and whether the assets are yours or have been inherited.
Federal Protection for IRAs for Bankruptcy
Like 401(k) qualified plans, The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and C onsumer P rot ect ion A ct of 2005 (“BAPCPA” or the “Act”) effective for bankruptcies filed after October 17, 2005, gave protection to a debtor’s IRA funds in bankruptcy by way of exempting them from the bankruptcy estate. The general exemption found in section 522 of the Bankruptcy Code, 11 U.S.C. §522, provides an unlimited exemption for IRAs under section 408 and Roth IRAs under section 408A. IRAs created under an employer-sponsored section 408(k) simplified employee pension (a “SEP IRA”) or a section 408(p) simple retirement account (a “SIMPLE IRA”), as well as pension, profit sharing, or qualified section 401(k) Plan wealth transferred to a rollover IRA.
Traditional and Roth IRAs that are created and funded by the debtor are subject to an exemption limitation of $1 million in the aggregate for all such IRAs (adjusted for inflation and subject to increase if the bankruptcy judge determines that the “interests of justice so require”). It is understood that a rollover from a SEP or SIMPLE IRA into a rollover IRA receives only $1 million of protection since such a section 408(d)(3) rollover is not one of the rollovers sanctioned under Bankruptcy Code section 522(n).
Protection of IRAs from Creditors Outside of Bankruptcy
In general, ERISA pension plans, such as 401(k) qualified plans, are afforded extensive anti-alienation creditor protection both inside and outside of bankruptcy. However, these extensive anti-alienation protections do not extend to an IRA, including a Self Directed IRA, arrangement under Code section 408. Therefore, since an individually established and funded Traditional or Roth IRA is not an ERISA pension plan, IRAs are not preempted under ERISA. Thus , for anything short of bankruptcy, state law determines whether IRAs (including Roth IRAs) are shielded from creditors’ claims.